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Main factors affecting the content of higher alcohols in beer

2018-02-01  From: RUIAN AOBAOSI MACHINERY CO.,LTDBrowsing times:108

Beer is a kind of beverage wine containing carbon dioxide and low alcohol, which is made from malt as the main raw material, adding hops and fermented by yeast. Has an important influence in the beer, senior alcohols, aldehydes, diacetyl, organic acids, esters and sulfur compounds on the flavor of beer, wine and alcohol fermentation by-product, the carbon dioxide is composed of beer, and beer flavor.

When the content of one or more substances is too high, it will change the flavor characteristics of the beer and lead to the beer flavor defect. High alcohol content, will make the beer have a sense of thick, different alcohols, the effect on the taste of beer is different, the high content of isoamyl alcohol can make the beer have a sense of headache after drinking. It is important to control the content of higher alcohols in a reasonable range.

The production mechanism of higher alcohols

Yeast synthesis of amino acids, a small amount of keto, the amount of amino acid by feedback inhibition, when the wort amino acid deficiency, feedback inhibition to be established, the formation of excess acid, due to the lack of appropriate nitrogen source, amino acids cannot be synthesized, the excess keto acid excreted in yeast, the formation of higher alcohols (corresponding Harris synthesis pathway higher alcohols), including alcohols leucine, isoleucine and valine, threonine respectively corresponding to the active amyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and n-propyl alcohol.

If the amino acid content is too high, the higher alcohols with less carbon atoms can be formed through the ammonia conversion and decarboxylation of yeast, including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine and the corresponding tyramol, beta phenyl alcohol (fermentation temperature indicator), chromophore and propyl alcohol. The higher alcohols corresponding to leucine, isoleucine and valine are active amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol and isobutanol.

Main factors affecting the content of higher alcohols in beer

Yeast: in order to reduce the increase of the higher alcohols of metabolic by-products, it is significant to limit the maximum concentration of yeast in fermentation. The multiplication rate is controlled less than 4 (preferably less than 3).

The effect of alpha amino nitrogen in wort: when the assimilable alpha - amino nitrogen is lacking in the wort, it leads to the formation of higher alcohols from ketoacid. When the alpha - amino nitrogen is too high in the wort, it also causes the increase of the higher alcohols formed by the amino acid deamination (not more than 220ppm).

The influence of the main fermentation temperature: the increase of the fermentation temperature will inevitably promote the reproduction of the yeast, and the production of higher alcohols will be increased accordingly. Whether the temperature of the fermentor is reasonable and even is one of the main problems that affect the high alcohol level of beer.

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